Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin): A Promising Natural Remedy for Wide Range of Illnesses : Table 1

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Neurological or mental Disorders Model used and intervention (s) Finding (mechanism) References
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) Lipopolysaccharide-induced AD in mice, received TQ (2.5 & 5mg/kg) for 7 days. (i) ↓ TBARS & 5-LOX levels
(ii) ↑ GSH extent and SOD action
(iii) Causes disaggregation of Aβ peptide
(iv) prevents declining of neurons
(v) Slows degeneration of cognitive ability [64, 65] Aβ-induced neurotoxicity (analyzed by culturing hippocampus and cortical neurons).
TQ is administered along with A for 72 hours (i) Reducing Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. (Improved cell viability) by:
(ii) Inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization
(iii) Hindering reactive oxygen species generation [66]
Parkinson’s disease (PD) 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in PD model, cultures were treated with TQ (0.01, 0.1, 1 and, 10 μM) on day 8th for 4 days. (i) Rescued dopaminergic neurons through:
(ii) Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects [67] Experimental model of early PD induced by 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity, pretreatment of daily TQ (5 & 10 mg/kg) and one additional dose after surgery were used. (i) ↓ MDA level
(ii) Prevents loss of neurons in substantia nigra
(iii) Protects hippocampal & human induced pluripotent stem cell against α-synuclein induced synaptic toxicity [68, 69]
Depression and anxiety (i) Open field and elevated plus maze models; forced swim test
(ii) Locomotor behavior in familiar and new environment in rats, N. sativa oil (0.1 mL/day) aqueous seed extract (2 mL/day) orally for 4-6 weeks (i) ↑ in open field activity & struggling time
(ii) ↑ 5-HT
(iii) ↓ 5HIAA level in the brain
(iv) ↑ tryptophan level in plasma & brain
(v) ↑ locomotors activity in novel environment
(vi) ↑ brain DA level [59, 70, 71] Stressed and unstressed mice, 10 and 20 mg/kg of TQ for 4 weeks Unstressed mice: at 10 & 20 mg/Kg showed anti-anxiety
(i) without altering nitrite levels
(ii) ↑ GABA content (only 20mg/Kg).
Stressed mice: 20 mg/kg showed anxiolytic effects with
(i) ↓ plasma nitrite level
(ii) Reversal of reduced GABA [72] Randomized control trial on healthy human subjects, N. sativa capsule (500 mg) daily for 4 weeks. (i) Stabilize disturbed mood
(ii) ↓ anxiety
(iii) Modulate memory positively [73]
Epilepsy Pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure, N. sativa oil; TQ (i) Prevented seizure occurrence
(ii) ↓ Reactive oxygen species generation
(iii) Reduced seizure score
(iv) Showed additive effects with phenobarbitone [74–76] Double-blinded placebo randomized control trial (refractory epilepsy), TQ as adjunctive therapy for 4 weeks (i) Significant reduction of seizure frequency (those who received combination therapy) [77]
Opioid dependence and Tolerance Morphine brought tolerance and dependency in mice, 4mL/kg of N. sativa oil along with morphine (5mg/kg) (i) Attenuated the development of tolerance
(ii) Inhibited nitric oxide overproduction
(iii) ↓ in brain MDA level [78] Randomized trial (on 35 known addicts of opiates), 500 mg N. Sativa three times daily (i) ↓ the withdrawal effects significantly
(ii) ↑ appetite (no significant weight gain)
(iii) No changes in physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate) [79]

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