Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin): A Promising Natural Remedy for Wide Range of Illnesses : Table 1
Neurological or mental Disorders
Model used and intervention (s)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
Lipopolysaccharide-induced AD in mice, received TQ (2.5 & 5mg/kg) for 7 days.
(i) ↓ TBARS & 5-LOX levels (ii) ↑ GSH extent and SOD action (iii) Causes disaggregation of Aβ peptide (iv) prevents declining of neurons (v) Slows degeneration of cognitive ability
Aβ-induced neurotoxicity (analyzed by culturing hippocampus and cortical neurons). TQ is administered along with A for 72 hours
(i) Reducing Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. (Improved cell viability) by: (ii) Inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization (iii) Hindering reactive oxygen species generation
Parkinson’s disease (PD)
1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in PD model, cultures were treated with TQ (0.01, 0.1, 1 and, 10 μM) on day 8th for 4 days.
(i) Rescued dopaminergic neurons through: (ii) Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects
Experimental model of early PD induced by 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity, pretreatment of daily TQ (5 & 10 mg/kg) and one additional dose after surgery were used.
(i) ↓ MDA level (ii) Prevents loss of neurons in substantia nigra (iii) Protects hippocampal & human induced pluripotent stem cell against α-synuclein induced synaptic toxicity
Depression and anxiety
(i) Open field and elevated plus maze models; forced swim test (ii) Locomotor behavior in familiar and new environment in rats, N. sativa oil (0.1 mL/day) aqueous seed extract (2 mL/day) orally for 4-6 weeks
(i) ↑ in open field activity & struggling time (ii) ↑ 5-HT (iii) ↓ 5HIAA level in the brain (iv) ↑ tryptophan level in plasma & brain (v) ↑ locomotors activity in novel environment (vi) ↑ brain DA level
[59, 70, 71]
Stressed and unstressed mice, 10 and 20 mg/kg of TQ for 4 weeks
Unstressed mice: at 10 & 20 mg/Kg showed anti-anxiety (i) without altering nitrite levels (ii) ↑ GABA content (only 20mg/Kg). Stressed mice: 20 mg/kg showed anxiolytic effects with (i) ↓ plasma nitrite level (ii) Reversal of reduced GABA
Randomized control trial on healthy human subjects, N. sativa capsule (500 mg) daily for 4 weeks.
(i) Stabilize disturbed mood (ii) ↓ anxiety (iii) Modulate memory positively
Pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure, N. sativaoil; TQ
(i) Prevented seizure occurrence (ii) ↓ Reactive oxygen species generation (iii) Reduced seizure score (iv) Showed additive effects with phenobarbitone
Double-blinded placebo randomized control trial (refractory epilepsy), TQ as adjunctive therapy for 4 weeks
(i) Significant reduction of seizure frequency (those who received combination therapy)
Opioid dependence and Tolerance
Morphine brought tolerance and dependency in mice, 4mL/kg of N. sativaoil along with morphine (5mg/kg)
(i) Attenuated the development of tolerance (ii) Inhibited nitric oxide overproduction (iii) ↓ in brain MDA level
Randomized trial (on 35 known addicts of opiates), 500 mg N. Sativa three times daily
(i) ↓ the withdrawal effects significantly (ii) ↑ appetite (no significant weight gain) (iii) No changes in physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate)